Table of Contents
- 1 Internet and Intranet
- 2 Fetching a Web Page
- 3 Connection-Oriented and Connection-less Services
- 4 HTTP TCP IP
- 5 Uniform Resource Locator(URL)
- 6 IP address and DNS
- 7 Domain name
- 8 Homepage Naming
- 9 Web Servers
- 10 Summary
Here are some questions:-
- How is internet organised?
- How do we find and retrieve pages on the internet?
- How is the data of internet are transmitted over internet?
- How the data on browsers displayed?
The web is a client-server application. web browsers are called clients which send the request to web server which send response back.
Internet and Intranet
Lets talk about the internet and intranet. Intranet is a private network which use protocols of the Internet. so it is used for internal purpose with in some organizations. Generally intranet is established with the technologies for local area networks (LANs). Internet is the network of networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. Intranet is accessed from with in private network, where as Contents on Internet are accessed globally.
Fetching a Web Page
So Lets talk how a page is displayed to our browser when we type an address. The internet is processed over certain layer each one provide services for the next layer above it.
The internet layer -> Make packets of data
The transport layer -> sends streams of data
The Application layer -> provides service to browsers
When you enter a web address (you are in application layer) the data is transmitted through the transport layer and then to the internet layer. Here actual data transfer takes place. Then to the internet layer and transport layer of server and Finally to the server. Server sends back the response through the same layers.
Connection-Oriented and Connection-less Services
In Connection Oriented service there is connection established in between the client and the server, so that there is track of every data send and received. So session is required. This method is often called a “reliable” network service, this service set up virtual links between end systems through a network. Where as on the connection less service there is no connection established in between, so there is no track of data received or not, the server sends the data and closed its connection. It is useful for periodic burst transfers.
HTTP TCP IP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP) makes use of Transmission control Protocol (TCP) to open connection between clients and server and to pass the request and response between them. When a link is opened A TCP connection is established between the browser(Client) and server. The request and response are sent back and forth using HTTP. HTTP is called as stateless protocol ie once the server sent the response back it will forget everything about the original request.
HTTP is a stateless protocol. A stateless protocol does not require the server to retain information or status about each user for the duration of multiple requests.
But some web applications may have to track the user’s progress from page to page, for example when a web server is required to customize the content of a web page for a user. Solutions for these cases include:
- the use of HTTP cookies.
- server side sessions,
- hidden variables (when the current page contains a form), and
- URL-rewriting using URI-encoded parameters, e.g., /index.php?session_id=some_unique_session_code.
— From Wikipedia
Internet Protocol (IP) is applied on the internet layer. Then connection of web pages using HTTP TCP and IP is a Connection Oriented Service.
Check the video below:-
The Internet and The Web – Introduction How Internet works
Uniform Resource Locator(URL)
URL is one type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is global address of documents and other resources on the Web. Without the url it is impossible to navigate to the sites and pages on the internet. They are used to identify the documents or pages on the web. On the url there are three basic components
A Prefix –> http:// https://
A hostname –> timeandupdate.com
A page name –> /2017/07/internet-web-introduction/
The url of this particular page is https://timeandupdate.com/2017/07/internet-web-introduction/
IP address and DNS
Every device connected to the internet have its own unique IP address which is its identity. So every client and server have its own IP address. IP address is a set of numbers which helps to identify the host in the internet. Domain Name System(DNS) are the Internet’s equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
Domain name is a unique name. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name.
All the domains registered are managed by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers formally known as ICANN. So every domain name registrar sites should be ICANN authorized. Domain registrar are those service which helps to register domain to you. Check Top Cheapest Domain Registration Sites and Free Domains
Note that you actually never own a domain name you are really just renting it.
Hosting is web space where your every documents those are required for your websites are stored in. It is a special computer which is online 24/7. This is the server we mention earlier. To serve your website globally you need hosting space. Check Set Up your Own Linux Server With free 10$ Credit and Free Web Hosting
Linking Domain and Hosting
Hosting will provide you with some IP address as Name Server. You can use those NS in you domain registrar site to link your domain with the hosting. Generally most of the domain registrar provides DNS management tool thought there you can manage your NS of your domain. There are various DNS managing free tool Cloudflare.com is the most used one. which is useful if your domain doesn’t provide you. Here DNS management of Godaddy is described Godaddy.com’s Off site DNS Manage.
Domain name not just site
Once you register a domain name its not only a website for you. With that domain you can make use of it in many fields. Once you register that domain and connect it with its host you can set up you domain name to use its as your email address. Here firstname.lastname@example.org you can mail here. If your domain provides mail service too you can easily set up your domain for using email through it. If your hosting is not providing you that facility you can manage your DNS so that you can use other mail server for your domain Check Best Email Hosting Mail Server For Your Domain. You can use your domain as a FTP server host name. Easy for file sharing.
Once you design and develop your websites there will be numbers of html pages on your root directory, Among them you want to make a page as homepage ie shown every time when user hit root of your domain. How can we manage it? To set a home page you can name it as index.html / index.htm. Browsers will first search for these files and display them in the root of your domain. root of domain means means timeandupdate.com/
Connecting your Computer with internet won’t make your device a capability of hosting your website. For hosting own domain your need to run special applications which are able to handle the TCP connections and response to the HTTP requests. The Apache HTTP server and NGINX are the two most popular web servers powering the Internet today. Apache was the backbone of the first generation of the World Wide Web. NGINX was created in 2002. Nginx seems to be the better choice today. Apache still remains easier to set up (especially for newcomers).
By the end of this post you know how A webpage are hosted and server through the internet. Here some free hosting sites and free domain providers are also included so that you can use those tools to set up your own website during this series. The Internet and The Web – Introduction